by Dr. Bruce Johnson
Consider how the process of learning begins for students. As a general perceptual rule, when students begin their degree programs they hope to obtain good grades, useful skills, and relevant knowledge. Their tuition paid assures placement in a class and there are implied results students expect as a product of their involvement in that class. In contrast, instructors expect students will obey the academic rules, perform according to the best of their abilities, and comply with specific class requirements which include deadlines for completion of learning activities.
For students, grades serve as an indicator of their progress in class, a symbol of their accomplishments and failures, and a record of their standing in a degree program. I have heard many students state their primary goal for the class was to earn what they refer to as “good grades” – even though they may not be fully aware of what constitutes a good grade for them. When students aren’t achieving good grades, or the minimum expected by instructors and/or the school, instructors may try to nudge them on – either through positive motivational methods such as coaching and mentoring, or negative motivational methods that include threats and a demeaning disposition.
I found many educators dangle a carrot in front of their students through indirect methods, such as the potential to earn a better grade, as an “A” may serve an indicator of the ultimate achievement in school. There may be incentives given to prompt better performance, including additional time or a resubmission allowance for a written assignment, as a means of encouraging students to perform better.
My question is whether the focus of teaching in higher education should be on the carrot we dangle in front of students to perform better, or should there be more of a focus on what motivates each individual student to perform to the best of their abilities? In other words, do we need to be dangling something in front of students to serve as a source of motivation?
What is the Carrot and Stick Method?
I believe most people understand the meaning of dangling a carrot in front of students to motivate them. The phrase is actually based upon a tale about a method of motivating an animal and while the carrot is dangling in front of it, the stick is used to prod the animal along. The carrot serves as a reward and the stick is used as a form of reinforcement and punishment for non-compliance.
This approach is still used in the workplace, even subconsciously by managers, as a method of motivating employees. The carrot or incentives may include a promotion, pay increase, different assignments, and the list continues. The stick that is used, or the punishment for not reaching specific goals or performance levels, may include a demotion or job loss. A threat of that nature can serve as a powerful motivator, even if the essence of this approach is negative and stressful.
The Carrot and Stick Method in Higher Education
If you are uncertain about the use of this approach in higher education, consider the following example. You are providing feedback for a written assignment and it is now the halfway point in the class. For one student, you believe they have not met the criteria for the assignment and more importantly, they have either not put in enough effort, they did not perform to your expectations, or they did not live up to their full potential. It should be noted that your beliefs about students are shaped by how you view them and their potential. In other words, I try to see my students as individuals who have varying levels of performance and that means some will be further along than others. In contrast, instructors who believe they do not have enough time to get to know their students as individuals may view the class as a whole, and set an expectation regarding the overall performance level that all students should be at for this particular point in the class.
Returning to the example provided, my question to you is this: Do you reward the attempt made by the student or do you penalize this student for what you perceive to be a lack of effort? As a faculty trainer, I have interacted with many faculty who believe all students should be high performers and earning top grades, regardless of their background and prior classes. When students fail to meet that expectation, there is a perception these students either do not care, they are not trying, or they are not reading and applying the feedback provided. The instructor’s response then is to dangle a carrot (incentive) and use the stick to try to change the necessary student behaviors.
Relevance for Adult Learning
There is a perception held by many educators, especially those who teach in traditional college classes, that instructors are in control and students must comply. This reinforces a belief within students that they do not have control over their outcomes and that is why many believe grades are beyond their control. I have seen many students stop trying by the time they were enrolled in a class I was teaching simply because they could not make a connection between the effort they made to the outcomes or grades received in prior classes. In other words, while they believed they were doing everything “right” – they were still getting “poor” grades.
At the heart of the adult learning process is motivation. There are as many degrees of motivation as there are types of students and it is not realistic to expect all students will perform at the same level. I’ve learned that adult student behaviors do not or will not permanently change as a result of forced compliance. However, behaviors will change in time when an instructor has built a connection with their students and established a sense of rapport with them. I encourage instructors to think beyond dangling a carrot and try to influence behavior, and not always through the use of rewards.
From a Carrot Incentive to a Connection
It is important for instructors to create conditions that are conducive to learning, while being aware of (and recognizing) all students have a capacity to learn. More importantly, some students gradually reach their potential while others develop much more quickly. My instructional approach has shifted early on from a rewards or carrot focus to a student focus. I want to build connections with students and nurture productive relationships with them, even when I am teaching an online class and have the distance factor to consider.
I encourage students to try and I welcome creative risks. I teach students to embrace what they call failures as valuable learning lessons. I encourage their involvement in the learning process, prompt their original thinking during discussions, and I teach them that their efforts do influence the outcomes received. I recognize this type of approach is not always easy to implement when classroom management is time consuming, and this is especially true for adjunct instructors. However, it can become an attitude and part of an engaging instructional practice. I encourage instructors to include it as part of their teaching philosophy so they work to implement it.
Every educator should have a well-thought out teaching philosophy as it guides how they act, and even react, to students and classroom conditions. A student focus, rather than a carrot and stick focus, creates a shift in perspective from looking first at the deficits of students and seeing their strengths – along with their potential to learn. It is an attitude of looking away from their lack and towards meaning in the learning process, and a shift from seeing an entire class to viewing students individually. My hope is that this inspires you to re-evaluate and re-examine how teach your students and consider new methods of prompting their best performance.
Dr. J is the author of Getting Down to Business: A Handbook for Adjunct Faculty Who Teach Business.